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There were numerous new appointments, and counts were frequently switched from one county to another, or dispossessed entirely as punishment for participation in the numerous rebellions organised against the Norman rulers.

The information in the primary sources about these early Norman nobles is patchy.

The arrival of the Normans in southern Italy in the early 11th century triggered a complete change in the profile of the nobility.

The new Norman rulers established their own network of counties and appointed their own followers as counts.

During the ten years of rule by Manfredo King of Sicily, illegitimate son of Emperor Friedrich, a change in the practice of noble appointments can be observed from the primary sources, which reveal only a handful of new counts most of whom were the kings relatives on his mothers side of the family.

The holdings of Manfredos nobles were confiscated by King Charles I after his accession in 1266, and a new group of nobility arrived in the kingdom, notably the various members of the Baux family of Provence who came to Naples with the Angevin king.

In several cases, the sources hint at family connections between these newly established nobility and the Hauteville family of the dukes of Apulia/kings of Sicily, but not all such relationships can be traced precisely.

A handful of Lombard noble families survived the transition and continued to flourish under Norman rule.

The only medieval counties so far identified with this area are Marsico, Policastro, Sanseverino and Tricarico, as well as the Signoria di Chiaromonte.

This is not especially satisfactory as it in no way reflects the divisions which existed in medieval times.

Nevertheless, it is anticipated that it will prove more helpful to future research to group the nobility territorially.

The arrival of the Hohenstaufen dynasty from Germany brought a new wave of nobles in its wake, the most influential of which was the family of the Bavarian Markgrafen von Hohenburg.

Existing Norman families who supported King Federigo (the future Emperor Friedrich II) retained their positions, but dissatisfaction with the new rulers triggered rebellions and confiscation of their properties which followed the suppression of the revolts, for example the case of the Conti di Sanseverino.

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